ANA tests detect antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in the blood. Antinuclear antibodies often attack the body’s tissues, specifically targeting each cell’s nucleus. In most cases, a positive ANA test indicates an autoimmune reaction. But some people have positive ANA tests even when healthy. An ANA test autoimmune may detect diseases such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, or scleroderma.
Gout is a form of arthritis in which pain and inflammation occur when too much uric acid crystallizes and deposits in the joints. Symptoms include severe pain, redness, and tenderness in joints.
In this inflammatory disease, white blood cells infiltrate healthy muscle fibers and foreign invaders. After long periods of inflammation, muscle fibers are destroyed causing fatigue and immobility.
Osteoporosis occurs when the body loses too much bone or makes too little bone or both. This results in weakened bones that are susceptible to breaking.
Reactive arthritis is a painful joint disease due to inflammation. It is a reaction to a bacterial infection. It causes extremely swollen and painful joints and fatigue.
A scleroderma is a group of rare diseases that more often occurs in female patients between the ages of 30 and 50. Symptoms are joint pain, heartburn, tightening of the skin, exaggerated response to cold, and (Raynaud’s disease).
Spondyloarthritis is a group of inflammatory diseases classified as either peripheral or axial. The peripheral form affects the limbs. The axial form affects mostly the spine and pelvic joints. Inflammation may also occur in the gastrointestinal tract, eyes, and where ligaments and tendons attach to the bones.
Vasculitis is inflammation of the blood vessels. The inflammation can lead the walls of the blood vessels to thicken and reduce the width of the vessel’s passageway. Organ and tissue damage may occur if blood flow is restricted.
Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory disease. Over time, some of the bones in the spine (vertebrae) fuse in patients with this condition. This fusion makes flexibility difficult and can result in a hunched posture. If ribs are affected, breathing deeply may also be difficult.
Lupus is a long-term autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks normal, healthy tissue. This disease causes fever, joint pain, skin rashes, and organ damage.
Osteoarthritis occurs when the protective tissue at the ends of bones (cartilage) wears down, worsening over time. Joint pain in the neck, hands, lower back, hips, or knees is the most common symptom.
Psoriatic arthritis is a type of inflammatory arthritis that affects some patients who have the skin condition psoriasis. Symptoms include stiffness, swelling, and joint pain.
Rheumatoid arthritis happens when the immune system doesn’t work properly and attacks the lining of the joints leading to joint inflammation and pain. The disease is common in the knees, hands, or ankles, and usually the same joint on both sides of the body.
Sjögren’s syndrome is a disorder of the immune system identified by dry eyes and a dry mouth. The disease often accompanies other immune system disorders like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
Tendonitis is inflammation of a tendon — the cords that attach muscle to bone. The condition causes pain and tenderness outside a joint. It’s most common around the elbows, shoulders, wrists, heels, and knees.